Pelvic floor rehabilitation
PERINEAL REHABILITATION: WHAT IS IT AND WHAT IS IT USED FOR?
Pelvic floor rehabilitation is a set of conservative techniques that aim to heal or attenuate symptoms caused by dysfunctions or muscular disorders of the pelvic area, bringing benefits to the person’s quality of life. When we talk about “pelvic floor’’, we understand all those muscles that have the function of maintaining the correct position of the pelvic organs (i.e. uterus, rectum, bladder and urethra) which, without good muscle support, can weaken and yield, leading to the onset of numerous disorders. Issues that may arise include:
- chronic pelvic pain;
- urinary and faecal incontinence;
- bladder, uterus and rectum prolapse;
- gynaecological disorders;
- prostate function problems;
- erectile dysfunction;
- premature ejaculation;
- disorders linked to sexuality.
PELVIC FLOOR SAGGING: RISK FACTORS
The main risk factors which favour pelvic floor dysfunctions are:
- foetal macrosomia;
- prolonged stage II labour;
- degree III perineal lacerations;
- damage to the pudendal nerve;
- chronic bronchitis;
- biochemical changes in collagen fibres.
NOT ONLY CARE, BUT ALSO PREVENTION OF THE PELVIC FLOOR
Only a few years ago did medicine reach the true awareness of this area, of its centrality and of its fundamental role. Today, the pelvic floor, its rehabilitation but also prevention actions are given proper importance. In a particular way the woman is more subject to the failure of the pelvic floor due to perineal lacerations during childbirth and episiotomy, but also to the changes that the body undergoes during menopause. For these reasons it becomes essential to be aware of all those actions and behaviours that affect pelvic floor alterations. Many daily activities can be carried out to bring benefits to the area: contraction and release exercises, learning diaphragmatic breathing, reduction of body weight, relaxation and stretching of pelvic muscles, reduction/abolition of smoking.
PELVIC REHABILITATION TREATMENTS
The pelvic floor rehabilitation techniques are applied on the basis of a customised protocol, according to need, in order to correct and bring benefits to the pelvic floor muscles.
It consists of a series of muscle contraction and relaxation exercises with the aim of preventing and treating changes in pelvic static and achieving the strengthening, relaxation and stretching of pelvic muscles. The goal of kinesitherapy is to recognise (awareness), train and use the perineum muscles. All exercises are preceded by concentration relaxation techniques and diaphragmatic breathing.
Electrostimulation is indicated in those cases where the patient cannot voluntarily and adequately contract their perineal muscles. It is a passive technique based on the use of special electrodes and relative electrical impulses that (painlessly) stimulate the pelvic floor muscles.
Biofeedback is a medical technique that allows you to re-educate the patient to train their pelvic muscles by contracting and releasing the muscles properly and effectively. Biofeedback can use instruments with visual or auditory signals, allowing the patient to verify contractions or relaxation and learn how to perform them correctly.
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